The initial increase of magnetic field in magnetic storms is caused
Options: when the shock wave, associated with the gusty solar wind, compresses the magnetosphere, when there is a large decrease in field intensity, when the gust wind itself engulfs the magnetosphere, None of the above
The physical layer, in reference to the OSI model, defines
Options: data link procedures that provide for the exchange of data via frames that can be sent and received, the interface between the X.25 network and packet mode device, the virtual circuit interface to packet-switched service, All of the above
Options: An electron that has been freed from its parent atom, An electron that costs nothing, An electron that has no electrical charge, An electron that has twice the amount of charge of a normal electron
A group of 2m - 1 routers are interconnected in a centralized binary tree, with router at each tree node. Router I communicate with router J by sending a message to the root of the tree. The root then sends the message back down to J. Then find the mean router-router path length.